YSB体育APP必须培育YSB体育APP的花园


丹•罗宾逊

过去的十天似乎震动了整个世界.  新闻迷们从今年年初开始就知道COVID-19了.  1月底,我往返于美国进行了几次长途飞行, 我戴着口罩, even though only a couple of cases had been diagnosed in the US and none in Latin America.  我不是唯一一个这样做的人,也许每20个人中就有一个这样做.  However, the announcement of the World Health Organization on March 11 that there was an official pandemic coincided with the beginning of the drop in the stock markets worldwide. These came only a day or two after the first two positive cases were identified here in Bolivia.  玻利维亚宣布从欧洲起飞的航班停飞, 最后一辆在13号星期五早上到达.

我想世界上很多人都意识到“IT”已经到来了.  The transitional president of Bolivia announced sweeping measures that came into place on Monday, 3月16日.  全国确诊病例不到10例,无相关死亡病例, 18:00到05:00的宵禁开始了.  The workday was shortened from 08:00 to 13:00 and intercity and interdepartmental land travel was prohibited, 城市之间仍有一些航班. Starting at midnight on the 21st of March, we went into what will be 40 days of “total lockdown”.

最后的几个晚上(在父亲节有一段无声的插曲), my town in the Bolivian Amazon has been far quieter than it has in the 25 years I have lived here.  对许多人来说,恢复正常需要很长时间, 这种常态可能与两周前的情况大不相同.

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合恩角和火地岛:南美洲南端-第三部分


By 教授罗伯特·弗莱明

在东部地区,  the Argentine government has promoted development by offering substantial financial inducements to people to settle and work in this region, 一个表现出相对寒冷和漫长的天气, 黑暗的冬天的夜晚. 该计划成功的一个很好的例子是乌斯怀亚, 这是一个挤在比格尔海峡边上的定居点. 从一个只有12岁左右的小镇开始,人口已增加到60岁以上,000, 因为这里是停靠港, 或者是起点, 用于往返于南大洋和南极半岛的船只, 夏天的几个月里游客络绎不绝. 每年有200多艘游轮停靠在这里.

比格尔海峡上的乌斯怀亚市标志着该岛的南部边界.

These days tourism is a major economic driving force here and records show that back in 2015  over 300,000名游客到达了这个岛, 大多数(55%)来自阿根廷Numerous other business activities are promoted in this eastern part of the island including extracting oil and gas, 还有泥炭开采,“和日志记录. In addition, factories that produce textiles and plastics have been constructed in economic free zones  while raising beef cattle is important as this region is free of hoof-and-mouth disease.

和大多数山区一样, foothill areas rise up on both sides of the main spine and each altitude level comes with distinct biological constituents. In the case of Tierra del Fuego the eastern foothills of the Darwin Range lie on the dry side  where the lower slopes are home to a variety of herbaceous plants including beach strawberry (草莓属chiloensis)及calafate (小檗属植物buxifolia),它们都被雅格汉人收集起来作为食物. 树木在条件允许的地方生长,其中包括针叶树,Pilgerodendron uviferum在柏树科, the southernmost cone-bearing plant in the world and one often found in association with subpolar beeches, 假山毛榉sp., 和冬季树皮,Drimys winteri早期旅行者用来预防坏血病的树皮.

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合恩角和火地岛:南美洲最南端-第二部分


教授 罗伯特·弗莱明

Only a few island groups on our planet have remained mostly free of human impact and with good fortune, 火地岛群岛的一部分, 在比格尔海峡下面, 是其中之一. 小的(244公里2/94mi2)合恩角国家公园, which encompasses both shallow marine habitats along with the island groups of Wollaston and Hermite. 合恩角岛本身只是保护区很小的一部分.

Some of the islands 在比格尔海峡下面 are treeless andexhibit tundra formations as well as alpine habitats, these often intermixed with freshwater ecosystems such as peat bogs that are repleat with species of Sphagnummosses. Indeed, 整个区域是苔藓植物热点区, 尤其以其适应寒冷的苔类和苔藓的多样性而闻名.

Shaded areas on islands west of the Darwin range are conducive to fern and moss growth.

In addition, other islands in the region  are partly covered with a mixture of southern evergreen forests or subpolar deciduous forests. 前者的主要组成部分是南部山毛榉 Nothfagus betuloides和白花 Drimys winteri (冬科). 虽然落叶林主要由南部的山毛榉组成, 假山毛榉pumilioand N. antarctica.

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合恩角和火地岛:南美洲南端-第一部分


教授 罗伯特·弗莱明

 

我是等待你的信天翁
在世界的尽头.
我是死去水手被遗忘的灵魂
经过合恩角的人
来自地球上所有的海洋.
但是他们没有死
在狂暴的波浪中.
今天他们在我的翅膀上航行
对永恒,
在最后的裂缝里
南极的风.

– Sara Vial

 

风的世界, waves, 漩涡状的浪花是南大洋信天翁的家园, the birds a fitting symbol for the spirits of the many mariners who have perished attempting to sail around Cape Horn (Cabo de Hornos) at the tip of 南美.  这些翻滚的海洋 host包括海燕在内的许多海鸟, skuas, 和扑打, 但最原始的物种是信天翁, their seemingly effortless flight beautifully adapted to the circumpolar winds that continuously blow east between 40 degrees and 60 degrees south latitude. 在海面下, 南极绕极流也向东旋转, little impeded by any land mass except where it has to squeeze through the 800km-wide Drake Passage between the Antarctic Peninsula and 南美.

从南边接近合恩角岛时看到的景象.


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